Computer Science & Information Systems Technology Is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications
Its subfields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines. Some fields, such as Computational Complexity Theory (which explores the fundamental properties of computational problems), are highly abstract, while fields such as Computer Graphics emphasize Real-World Visual Applications.
Still other fields focus on the challenges in implementing computation. For example, Programming Language Theory considers various approaches to the description of Computation, whilst the study of Computer Programming itself investigates various aspects of the use of programming language and complex systems.
Human-computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers and computations useful, usable, and universally accessible to humans.>
Cloud Conputing Architecture, the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing, typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging queue.
Elastic provision implies intelligence in the use of tight or loose coupling as applied to mechanisms such as these and others.
The Intercloud is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds" and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based.
Cloud Engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing. It brings a systematic approach to the high-level concerns of commercialization, standardization, and governance in conceiving, developing, operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems, software, web, performance, information, security, platform, risk, and quality engineering.>
In Computer Networking, Cloud Computing is a phrase used to describe a variety of computing concepts that involve a large number of computers connected through a communication network such as the Internet. It is very similar to the concept of utility computing.
In science, Cloud Computing is a synonym for distributed computing over a network, and means the ability to run a program or application on many connected computers at the same time.
The phrase is often used in reference to network-based services, which appear to be provided by real server hardware, and are in fact served up by virtual hardware, simulated by software running on one or more real machines.>
Other key components in anything as a service (XaaS) are described in a comprehensive taxonomy model published in 2009, such as Strategy-as-a-Service, Collaboration-as-a-Service, Business Process-as-a-Service, Database-as-a-Service, etc. In 2012, network as a service (NaaS) and communication as a service (CaaS) were officially included by ITU (International Telecommunication Union) as part of the basic cloud computing models, recognized service categories of a telecommunication-centric cloud ecosystem.>
The National Institute of Standards and Technology's definition of cloud computing identifies "five essential characteristics":
On-demand Self-service: A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each service provider.
Broad Network Access: Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, tablets, laptops, and workstations).
Resource Pooling: The provider's computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand.>